Introduction to Intelligence & Artificial Intelligence
“Very soon the world will witness the very first court case won by Artificial Intelligence.”
Computers and machines were invented to ease the human tasks. Since their inventions, their capabilities have grown exponentially. They have decreased in size and components and increased in functionality and speed.
Computer engineers have always tried to develop computer programs or machines that can somehow act like humans. During late 20th century great accomplishments were done in this field and the very first intelligent computer programs were introduced. For instance; in 1997 the Deep Blue Chess Program defeated the then world chess champion.
What is Intelligence?
Intelligence can be defined as the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills. In a broader manner, it is the ability of an entity (human & machine) to think, calculate, apply reasons, act upon situations, solve problems and learn from experience.
Intelligence can take various shapes. Like musical intelligence is the ability to create, communicate with and understand the meanings made by sound. Musicians and singers have musical intelligence. Likewise; mathematicians have logical – mathematical intelligence.
Related: Sixth Generation Computers
Components of Intelligence
Intelligence is generally composed of the following 5 elements.
Reasoning is the process through which an entity provides base for a decision or judgment. Simply giving sense to things or actions is called reasoning.
Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge through studying, being taught or experiencing. This ability is highly possessed by humans and some animals.
- Problem Solving:
It is the process of arriving at a desired solution by taking a path which is blocked by hurdles.
It is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information.
- Linguistic Intelligence:
It is the ability to use, comprehend, speak and write the verbal and written language.
What is Artificial Intelligence?
Human are intelligent, but can machines or computer programs be?
Well, yes! Computer programs and machines can be developed in such a manner that they would have the ability to think, decide, take actions learn from experience and react to different situations on their own.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a new field in science which deals with the development of such intelligent machines, robots and computer programs. The most important goal of AI is to develop expert systems.
John McCarthy, the father of Artificial Intelligence, defined the term AI in 1956 and later in 1958 he invented LISP programming language for it. Since then AI has developed quit fast. During 1990s intelligent computer programs such as Deep Blue Chess program was built and later on intelligent robots took over the market. It was only during 2014-15 that intelligent robots were manufactured commercially. Now simple works such as making coffee and brushing the floor can easily be done by robots.
In 2017, Saudi Arabia became the very first country to give citizenship to a robot named Sophia. Sophia is developed by the Hanson Robotics based in Hong Kong.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence has developed further than what was expected of it. Now AI is almost there in every field of knowledge. Some of the fields that AI is dominant in are as such:
Have you ever played chess or game of cards (poker) in computer or on your phone? If yes; then you have played with AI. These strategic games are developed as such that they can think of a large number of possible actions based on heuristic knowledge.
- Image Processing:
It is a branch of AI which understand and interpret visual inputs on a computer.
- Speech Recognition:
Some intelligent systems are there that can understand and comprehend while a human is talking to them. These systems can also handle different accents, slang words, or a change in human voice due to cold.
- Intelligent Robots:
Robots are the most important entity that make use of AI. Computer engineers have estimated that very soon the world will be witnessing the very first court case won by a robot.
2018, the upcoming year, is thought to be very critical year in the field of Artificial Intelligence and robotics. Probably commercial robots will be available worldwide and far intelligent robots would come in to market. Although; the development of intelligent robots could be a threat to privacy and safety of human kind. But, humans can benefit more and if proper care is taking while developing them, their threat can be avoided.